Typical health and hygiene problem of girls and women with solution

By : Anwesha Bose | : 19 August, 2020
Typical health and hygiene problem of girls and women with solution


Typical health and hygiene problem of girls and women with solution

 As per world data, girls and women of developing countries suffer malnutrition in rural areas and also in the urban lower middle class. Young girls need more care from school days. They need more nutrition and more hygienic care due to huge blood loss for a menstrual cycle every month. They are the future mothers of human society. So, learn health & hygiene & foods for girls & women.


 Health is a fit state of body-mind-soul, a great source of peace and happiness. It means that the body is physically fit, mentally sound, and there is no illness or disease. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defined human health in a broader sense in its 1948 constitution as “A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. On the other hand, hygiene is a concept related to cleanliness, health and medicine. According to WHO, “Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases”. Personal hygiene refers to maintaining the body’s cleanliness. Food is something which is an important part of leading a healthy lifestyle. Healthy food provides the nutrients and energy to develop and grow, be active to move, play, work, think and learn.

Women’s Health in Developing Countries

 The health of women is different from the health of men. It can be examined by multiple factors. Currently, women’s health is an issue that needs attention as they face many health problems many of which also end up in family matters and greater society. The World Economic Forum indicates that Indian sub-continent and Africa are in worst positions in the world in terms of gender inequality and women health. Gender is one of the main social determinants of health which include social, economic and political factors that play a major role in the health outcomes of women. Women face numerous health problems in developing countries. The problems are faced by women of all ages and also in rural and urban areas. There are different problems of health for women, such as malnutrition and morbidity, breast cancer, lack of maternal health, domestic violence, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular health, mental health, suicide, blood-related problems and many more. Some of them are discussed here.

Food, Malnutrition & Maternal Health

 One of the main factors in an individual’s overall health is nutrition. Malnutrition impacts on the physical health status of women. Women from poorer classes and backward areas experience different health care problems. Asia and Africa have one of the highest rates of malnourished women in developing countries. Most of the women suffer from iron deficiency. The malnutrition increases as women enter adulthood and grow older. For this reason, the risk of maternal mortality is also high in these regions. Poor maternal health affects the child’s health and also decreases a women’s ability to participate in economic activities. But the rates are significantly different across this region. The states with higher literacy rates tend to have better maternal health and thus the infant mortality rate is lower. Another problem is the food problem for women.  Developing countries are facing this problem for a long period of time. The supply of food grains is totally inadequate as the per capita calorie intake in rural areas is very low in comparison to developed countries. Women are more likely to suffer from nutritional deficiencies than men are. The reasons are low social status, poverty, lack of education and women’s reproductive biology. Since women contribute to almost half of the global population, it is important that they are also given proper food, nutrition, and other requirements necessary for a happy life.


 Women not only contribute to national income, but they are also the backbone of rural economies. Most of them work in agriculture in the least developed countries. So it is important to give proper attention to women’s health and nutrition from early childhood to avoid malnutrition. Inadequate food, poor health and lack of WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) lead to malnourished adults. Undernutrition during pregnancy of women can affect the infant’s birth weight. It is quite probable that they suffer from undernutrition too. Almost 50% of all pregnant women are anemic and almost a quarter woman is under-weight especially in less developed countries They need protein, iron during menstruation. Maternal malnutrition is extremely high in these countries. Almost 54% of women suffer from anemia. Malnutrition leads to economic losses for families and countries as it reduces women’s ability to work. It also reduces the productivity of women in less developed countries.

Why Women Suffer More?

 The health care infrastructure of this region prevents adequate access for women, leading to lower health outcomes. As a result, women and girls are facing a growing cancer epidemic and the number of women with breast cancer is increasing. One of the reasons for this situation is considered to be the westernization of the country which includes westernized diet, late childbearing etc. The mortality rate of AIDS is higher for women than for men. With higher rates of dependence on men, women are less likely to be taken to a hospital or receive medical care and this increases the risk of suffering from complications with HIV. It is also evident that it can lower the marriage prospects of those women suffering from AIDS, and thus creates greater stigma. Another health issue suffered by women is reproductive rights. Abortion in some countries has been legalized during the 1970s. But still, there are inadequate health care centers that provide necessary services for abortion. Numerous factors contribute to the female fetus abortion. The preference for sons over daughters is one of the main reasons. Families of women often have to pay dowry in order to marry off a daughter which increases the preference of sons over daughters.

Lack of Facilities for Sanitation, Abortion & Privacy

 Hygiene reduces diarrheal diseases and assists to improve social outcomes in the community. Currently, many developing countries are struggling to cope with water shortages and other problems which results in poor hygienic practices. The common types of hygiene are personal hygiene, water hygiene, food hygiene and hygiene during waste handling. Hygiene problem is one of the main issues for women, especially sanitary hygiene. The taboo associated with menstruation weakens the women who have to go through this process every month. It is a superstition in many parts of the world. It has almost crippled women with chronic reproductive infections. From rural to even urban slum areas, the taboos are there everywhere in developing countries. For this, only 18% of women in South East Asia and Africa have access to sanitary hygiene and the rest don’t even know what a sanitary napkin is and what it is used for. For women and girls, these problems are disproportionately difficult. It is important to know why sanitation for women matters. According to the United Nations, “In 2006, one-third of all primary schools lacked basic drinking water, sanitation and hygiene services affecting more than 2 billion people.” For a woman delivering children in these facilities, lack of safe drinking water can be fatal for both mother and child. Around.  the world, the majority of women having no access to basic sanitation. They struggle to keep themselves clean, especially during menstruation. Due to lack of privacy when urinating, many women without a toilet will wait until its dark outside to relieve themselves which exposes them to attacks.

Preventive Measures for Adolescent Girls & Mothers


 The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) state that in 2000 it was a challenge for the nations to create effective interventions to improve women’s and adolescent girl’s nutrition. Micronutrient deficiencies should be treated as well as prevented by the public health system. We must encourage households to meet the dietary needs of women and adolescent girls throughout their lives. We must ensure their access to high-quality health services, clean water and adequate sanitation. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of a baby benefits both the child and mother as it protects the children from illness and ensures healthy growth and development of the mother. In early childhood, children should receive an adequate amount of appropriate food and other nutrients that are available from breastfeeding. Almighty Nature has arranged this. Adolescent girls should have access to information related to nutrition, reproductive health, family planning and general health.

Precautions for Menstrual & Personal Hygiene

 Women who are paying less attention to their hygiene can spread lots of germs. Trachoma, food poisoning, skin infections are some of the diseases caused by poor personal hygiene. This is why it is essential for women to maintain personal hygiene. Appropriate disposal of used menstrual material is still lacking in many countries including developed ones. Eco- friendly napkins are still a distant dream. In schools, female teachers can make the school environment friendly to manage menstruation.

Need for Women Insurance Policy


 Healthy living can prevent lots of diseases. Few simple things such as eating a healthy diet, avoiding risky habits, exercising, managing stress, checking for breast cancer can help women ensure good health. Obtaining proper treatment for chronic diseases and other health issues becomes difficult when people lack health insurance. Currently, many states have taken a variety of actions to improve accessibility for pregnant women and prohibiting insurance policies that discriminate against women. Improving access to insurance coverage, preventing and reducing chronic health conditions and promoting wellness significantly affect the lives of women of all ages. Many innovative opportunities are available to address unique health challenges women face and to improve the overall health of women in their state.

About the author:

Anwesha Bose
Anwesha Bose
Editorial Assistant
Anwesha having completed M. Sc in Statistics with specialization on computer application....